[영작문법#22] 주어 동사 수일치 (Subject-Verb Agreement) 총정리
1. 수일치는 주어가 "3인칭(3rd person)/단수(singular)일때" 주의하여야 됩니다.
주어가 3인칭 단수이고, 동사가 현재형일 때 일반동사는 –s/es를 붙여 주며, be동사는 is로 씁니다.
It snows in winter. (일반동사)
겨울에 눈이 온다.
It is snowing now. (be동사)
지금 눈이 오고 있다.
아래 표를 보시면 3인칭 단수일 때만 변화가 생긴다는 것을 알 수 있습니다.
|1인칭||단수||I am||I have||I live|
|복수||We are||We have||We live|
|2인칭||단수||You are||You have||You live|
|복수||You are||You have||You live|
|3인칭||단수||He/She/It is||He/She/It has||He/She/It lives|
|복수||They are||They have||They live|
2. 동사가 –sh/ch/s/z/x로 끝나면 동사에 –es를 붙이고, 자음+y로 끝나면 ies를 붙인다.
Dried wood catches fire quickly.
건조된 나무는 불이 빨리 붙는다.
The star vanishes from sight.
그 별은 시야에서 사라진다.
A chef mixes eggs and flour.
요리사가 달걀과 밀가루를 섞는다.
A baby cries after birth.
아기는 태어난 후 운다.
A student tries his best to do homework.
학생은 숙제를 하기 위해 최선을 다한다.
3. 주어의 위치 찾기
1) 주어와 동사의 거리가 멀때
|S+[전치사+명사]+V||The boy on the bus is my classmate.
The boys on the bus are my classmates.
|S+[형용사절]+V||The meal that breaks the overnight fast is breakfast.
The meals that we eat in the morning are called breakfast.
|S+[분사구문]+V||The man reading the Bible over there is my father.
The men reading the Bible over there are my uncle and father.
|A person interested in art is generally sensitive.
People interested in art are generally sensitive.
|A student able to obtain a part-time job gains valuable experience.
The students able to obtain a part-time job gain valuable experience.
|S, [부속성분], V||Grand Lake, formed by glaciers, covers about 600 acres.
John Kim, the director of the centre, releases data once a year.
2) N1 of N2
(1) 양/부분 표현은 N2에 일치
all / half / most / some / the rest / part / the majority / percent / 분수 of N2 + V
All of the population on the island lives in cities.
All of the people on the island live in cities.
Most of the population on the island lives in cities.
Most of the people on the island live in cities.
Some of the population on the island lives in cities.
Some of the people on the island live in cities.
The rest of the land consists of mountains.
90 percent of the matter in the universe is invisible.
A third of Lake Athabasca lies in northeastern Alberta.
참고: all, any, some, half, most, no + N N의 수에 일치
All living things are highly ordered systems.
Some sea ice remains throughout the year.
(2) 대부분은 N1 of N2는 N1에 일치
one / none / each / the number / two / both / 숫자 / N1 of N2 + V
One of the major events in Hawaii is Aloha Week Festivals.
None of the plants in the area has true roots.
The number of known satellites has increased since the 1970s.
Two of the largest railroad companies are headquartered in Virginia.
The economy of the prairie provinces is based on agriculture.
중요: The number of 복수명사+단수동사 VS A number of 복수명사+복수동사
The number of public libraries has multiplied. (…의 숫자는…)
A number of animals have special senses. (a number of=many)
Many of 복수명사+복수동사 VS Much of 불가산명사+단수동사
Many of the simplest animals reproduce asexually.
Much of Asia's wildlife is threatened by over-hunting.
3) 등위접속사(Coordinating Conjunction)/상관접속사(Paired Conjunction)
|B에 일치||or 계열||A or B + V
either A or B + V
neither A nor B + V
whether A or B + V
|but 계열||not only A but (also) B + V
B, as well as A, + V
|복수취급||and 계열||A and B + V
both A and B + V
Bill or the kids play computer games every day.
The kids or Bill plays computer games every day.
Neither fire nor animals recognize park boundaries.
Neither animals nor fire recognizes park boundaries.
Either iron or magnesium atoms fit into the crystal.
Either magnesium atoms or iron fits into the crystal.
Residents, as well as the tourist, enjoy the festival.
The tourist, as well as residents, enjoys the festival.
Both chemistry and physics deal with atomic structure.
참고: Either와 Neither가 Either of / Neither of의 형태로 쓰이면 단수 취급
Neither of his imaginings is close to becoming a reality.
그의 상상 중 어느 것도 현실이 되기에는 거리가 멀다.
There는 부사이기 때문에 be동사 다음의 명사가 S로 쓰이므로 수 일치에 주의해야 한다. 의미는 “S가 있다” 또는 “없다”의 의미로 쓰인다. there는 아무런 의미를 가지지 못한다.
There is a great amount of information on the Internet.
There are many paths that can lead to a happy life.
Here are the most common options for life after high school.
5) 항시 단수 취급 주어
(1) 한 단위 취급
|명사구/절||동명사||Talking to friends is nice.|
|명사절||That the climate is changing is obvious.|
|질량명사||Little||Little has been known about COVID-19.|
|Much||Much has been said about COVID-19.|
|군집명사||사람그룹||The choir in the school performs every year.
eg) audience, choir, class, committee, congress, family, group, jury
|동물그룹||A school of fish is a group of fish that gathers together.
eg) a flock of birds/sheep, a school of fish, a herd of cattle
|단위그룹||Fifty dollars is too much to pay for the book.
eg) 시간/거리/가격/무게 등 측정단위: ten years/miles/dollars/pounds
참고: 군집명사는 단수 취급하지만, 멤버의 개별행동이나 특성을 나타내면 복수 취급
The crowd who gathered at the square were all deeply moved. (개별특성🢥복수취급)
(2) Every / Each / -thing
|every/each+단수명사+단수동사||Every person has his or her own lifestyle.
Everyone dreams, but some people never recall dreaming.
cf) Every boy and girl is interested in the game.
Each coffee berry contains two beans.
|-thing+단수동사||Without water, nothing lives.
Everything around us is made up of atoms.
중요: each of는 대명사로 사용될 수 있으나 every of는 사용될 수 없다.
Each of the Great Lakes loses water by evaporation.
(3) –S로 끝나는 단수명사
|국가이름||the United States, the Netherlands, the Philippines|
|학문이름||politics, mathematics, statistics, economics, linguistics|
|병 이 름||diabetes, measles, mumps|
|means, series, species (단수와 복수 동일)
The United States has 50 states.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language.
Measles is a disease that causes a pink rash all over the body.
No news is good news.